Nature and environment

Od | Zasláno do sekce Angličtina | Ve 02-10-2008

 

There are many problems in the world. Science is trying to solve them and all of us should contribute to solution. o¬ne of the biggest problems is that of environment. The steep development of industry is a great danger for life o¬n the Earth. There are two pressing problems with the atmosphere of our planet caused by emitting polluting materials into the air. The first o¬ne is the impairment of the ozone layer. Ozone absorbs the ultraviolet rays (UV radiation) from the Sun, which is dangerous for all beings o¬n the Earth. Ozone is decomposed by freons above all. It is necessary to stop using this gas and replace it by another o¬ne. The second great problem is the green-house effect Which is caused by a lot of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the air. Gradual warming of the Earth-s atmosphere can bring melting ok the polar icecaps and the sea level going up.

Another problem connected with the environment is the problem of energy. We need a lot of energy to keep the development of industry. There have been invented three main types of power stations so far. Thermal power stations pollute the air, release smog. Water power stations destroy the landscape and in our country there are few suitable rivers for water power stations. Nuclear power stations are rather expensive but they do not pollute the air. Many people think that they are not safe but the biggest problem is nuclear waste We should use new sources of energy, for example solar energy and energy exploitation under the surface of our planet.

The development of industry requires raw materials, too. The deposits of raw materials o¬n the Earth will be exhausted and that is why we must replace some materials with plastics. But plastics bring another problem because they are indestructible and scientists have to find a technology enabling their utilization. Recyclation is’ o¬ne of the ways to economize the raw materials.

There are a lot of ways of being friendly ‘to the environment. We can use means of transport, which are less dangerous -for, the environment (bicycle, train, walk, unleaded petrol). We can sort our waste to enable its recyclation . We can save energy . We can choose washing-up liquids and washing powders that don’t harm the environment.

Many people are also worried about local environmental problems such as noise, drinking water and litter. The best thing to do about litter is not to drop it in the first place . (More men are prosecuted for dropping litter than women. Almost o¬ne-third of all litter dropped is smoking-related.)

There are many environmental movements working for protection of nature. For example Greenpeace, Children of the Earth, Rainbow,etc.

Rainforests
Before 1900 rainforests covered 14% of [lie world’s surface. Today they cover 7%. The reason for (his is simple. They have been cut down to provide a) land. b) paper, c) wood, d) medicines, e) minerals. f) fuel. But it’s not o¬nly trees which are disappearing. Every rainforest also contains millions of animals, insects and flowers. These are destroyed, too. If man continues to cut down rainforests, more than o¬ne million species of plants and animals will become extinct’)by the year 2030. Governments should protect’) certain areas and plant new forests.

Energy
At the moment, 94% of the world’s energy comes -from fossil) fuels. There’s enough coal for the next 300 years but o¬nly enough gas and oil for the next 50. What happens then? Well, o¬ne answer is nuclear energy. But after the Chernobyl disaster 7) in 1986, many people think nuclear power isn’t safe’). There ,ire four ‘Green’9)solutions. They all use natural energy already in the environment, a) wind energy (Britain’s first ‘wind farm’ opened in Scotland in I..988), b) solar energy, c) wave”)energy (from the sea) and d) geothermal)”@energy (from ‘hot’ rocks under the earth).

Acid Rain

One of Europe and North America’s most serious pollution problems is acid rain. What happens? First factories send gases and chemicals into the air. There they mix and are carried for hundreds miles by the wind. Finally they fall back to earth when it rains. This acid rain kills fish and trees. It slowly destroys buildings and bridges, too. Industrial countries should control their levels of pollution. This is already happening in some parts of Europe. Several countries there, have cut their acid rain pollution by 30%.

Wildlife
Animals are part of the environment too. Millions of them are killed or treated”) cruelly”) by mail every year. Animals are used for scientific research. Animal’s ire killed for sport or for their fur or skin. Animals are in danger because the environment is in danger. and they are kept cruel conditions o¬n the farms, - for example chickens, cows. Groups like ‘Greenpeace’ have already helped to stop furhunting. Like many other organizations, they believe in animal rights. Animals shouldn’t suffer.