Sports and games

Posted by | Posted in Angličtina | Posted on 02-10-2008

Sports are one of the most popular leisure time activities. This is mainly due to fact that they help one to keep fit both physically and mentally. Such a form of relaxation as sports is refreshing, can help take off some weight. During sports events one can meet a lot of new people and see how it feels to be a winner or a loser. Many people have been interested in keep-fit, yoga and anything to keep they self-mobile. Often they join some club, where about twenty of they meet together and they go through all their movements with music. It is very enjoyable. Needles to say, that every one can do exercise in gym. How often? They go once or twice or more a week and they exercise for about one hour with lots of their friends. For this keep-fit they just wear a leotard with a top.
The increase of interest in sports is best illustrated by the appearance of ever-new sports facilities. It is important to note that besides taking an active part in sports it is also possible just to watch sports events as a spectator or play the pools (bet money on certain sports results).
Usually all sports and games are further differentiated into two groups according to where they can be practised. We can practise outdoor or indoor sports. Indoor sports include for example gymnastic, table tennis, boxing wrestling, and chess. Among outdoors sports are skiing, sledding, hiking, rock climbing, horse riding, golf. Also one healthiest sports, swimming and figure skating do not actually demand a roofed room. One of the most popular sports is cycling. Sports and games can be divided into to groups, too, according to seasons, which they are practised. Than we have winter and summer sports. One of the most love winter sports is skiing. I like skiing too, but I don’t go to ski. I first skied when I was with the primary school in the mountain and than twice with grammar school. I could not well skiing but I enjoyed it. Since this time I have never skied since this time. Bu t many people go to the mountain regularly. They love skiing. They can good skiing. Sometimes, especially in the season of skiing, it can be rather crowded in the mountains, especially around the mechanical lifts, which take you zooming up. You need special equipment for skiing- skies, boots, and poles. Many people own their own equipment but others hire there in the resort. Mostly they have their own clothes, because skiing is quite a fashion conscious sport. It’s necessary to have clothes that will protect you because the weather can be very severe. They need a ski-suit, a hat, and goggles to protect your eyes, socks, mittens and a rucksack, which is useful to carry around your bits.
The games are usually all-season activities, and they are practised both indoors and outdoors. The most numerous group of games are the ball games. In other states there are individual games.
The British are lover’s sports, and when they are neither playing nor watching games they like to talk about them. England was also the first home of many popular modern games. Among these, football is the most. In Britian there are a great number of clubs. In the United States, however, it is called soccer. Rugby football is also very popular. This game was first played at Rugby (a town) Scholl, England. In this game the ball is oval. Golf is of Scottish origin. The lawn tennis season reaches its peak every year at the Wimbledon tournament, which is played in London. For relaxation squash is also played.
In the USA most sports and games have been commercionalized. The four professional games there are American football, baseball, basketball, and ice hockey. These games are turned into big shows in which the sports stars make a lot of money.
Ball games belong to the most popular in our country. They include especially football, volleyball, basketball, handball and tennis. Besides this ice hockey is played at a very high level here too.
I have played basketball since I was eleven. It is my favourite game. Basketball is team game and you can play it with your friends and enjoy it as a team. It is a fast game and that is another reason why I enjoy it. I play basketball at local sports centres during a year, but in the summer I can play basketball out. This is called street ball. It is very different game. Instead of two baskets on a ground, it is only one basket. Our team play in Tournaments of South Moravia. I’ve played for MK and we were to six from nine flour. I need the ball and the basket for the basketball and shoes. But you can kneepads and your basketball kit for play. You need kneepads, because you can fall on your knees a lot. During the seasons, which are about 6 months, from September to March, I play three times a week. Two of those training and one is a match.

Traditions and holidays in the UK and the USA

Posted by | Posted in Angličtina | Posted on 02-10-2008

Holidays and anniversaries in Great Britain

    New Year’s day - January the 1st – titles and decoration are conferred by the queen, It usually takes place on the Trafalgar square
    St. Valentine’s day - February the 14th - a lovers feast. Young people send Valentine cards, usually without their sign and exchange gifts. The day was named after one clergy man who was executed
    St. David’s day - March the 1st the patron saint of Wales
    St. Patrick’s day - March the 17th the patron saint of Ireland. People often wear shamrock on that day, because it is the symbol of Ireland
    All Fools day - April the 1st , it is named after the custom of playing parricidal jokes and tricks on people and you can shout “April fool!”
    Easter - is celebrated as in the whole Europe. Easter eggs, dyed and decorated or made of confectionery symbolising new life are given as presents
    May day - is celebrated with dancing around Maypoles, the political parties of the left hold processions and public meetings
    Mothers day - 2nd Sunday in May
    The mid-summer’s day June 24th ,there is sunrise ceremony at Stonehenge. Somewhere the midsummer fires are lit as pre -Christian times when this ritual was performed to give strength to the sun and drive out the devil
    Official birthday - In June the Queen’s official birthday is celebrated. It is a great ceremony with a parade of the Queen’s guards and soldiers and ceremony of Trooping the colour at the gorse guards parade in London
    Halloween - in Britain is celebrated only in the North of England and Scotland, but is generally celebrated in the USA and Canada. Children dress up in Halloween costumes of ghosts, witches, wizards etc. they go to the neighbours houses and they say to the people “Trick or treat.” The children are given the sweets, fruit or money. the most common trick is soaping the windows. People make a lantern from a scraped pumpkin with eyes, nose and mouth. Then a candle is lit inside.
    Guy Fawkes Night - on November 5th , ther was the unsuccessful plot to blow up the Houses of Parliament in 1605 – it’s called the Gunpowder plot – the consecrations were executed. It is celebrated with bonfires, fireworks and the burning of guys
    St. Andrew’s day - November 30th, the patron saint of Scotland
    Christmas - 25th December, is family holiday in Britain
    Boxing day - 26th In the past apprentices and tradesmen collected money in boxes on that day. During Christmas time people sing carols and songs

    Important holidays in USA
    St. Patrick’s day - 17th March, originally it was an Irish holiday. St Patrick is the patron of the Irish people. On this day everywhere is green colour. The symbol of the day is shamrock.
    Easter - many homes organise “Easter egg hunt” – also the president
    Memorial day - It is celebrated 4th Monday in May. The American honour the dead of all wars
    Independence day 4th July, the birthday of the USA. typical of this day is the atmosphere and enjoyment, there are family beach party and the fireworks at night
    Columbus Day - 2nd Monday in October, This day commemorates Columbus landing in the New World
    Veteran’s day - November 11th
    Thanksgiving day - every 4th Thursday in November. It is a family holiday
    Valentine’s day - the same in Britain
    Halloween - the same in Britain

Cultural life

Posted by | Posted in Angličtina | Posted on 02-10-2008

The cultural life covers going to the theatre, cinema, museum, exhibition or visiting varios castels, chateaux or ruins. The another source of knowledge and cultur is reading books, magazines or newspapers.
Cinemas and theatres are the most popular cultur activities. Going to the cinema like mostly the young people. But nowdays are the tickets expensive, so people don´t visit cinema very often. They see it rather on the computer. In small town there is one building together for theatre and for cinema. The films aren´t screening every day and the theatre performances are very rarely. In the bigger cities there can be more theatres and special cinemas – multicinemas or 3D cinema, which is in our country in Prague. There is also the National Theatre in Prague. Tickets are expensive there and must be bought well in advance. But for person, who loves theatre is it the huge experience.
In the theatre or cinema there are stalls, boxes and circle for audience. Admit the stalls there are the aisles. The construction of a theatre is much more demanding than the construction of a cinema. For projection all that´s needed is movie scren and reel of film. In the theatre there os stage with varios lighting effect. Behind the stage there is the backstage area. At the beginning and end of each performance a curtain rises and falls. In the course of performance actors appear in different costumes and masks.
In the theatre we can also see some musicals, which are very popular or a concert, for example the concert of classical music. The most known componer of classical music are Bedřich Smetana, Antonín Dvořák or Ludvig van Beethoven.
The exhibitions are in big cities. The most frequent are the picture exhibitions. The exhibition may present the work of single artist or sometimes it presents the work of several artists on a single theme. The exhibition visit mostly people, which like art or students of art schools.
Not every town has a museum. A visit to the museum contribute to our education. There are many kinds of museums. These can be museums of history, agriculture, industry etc. Often there is a guide who takes us around the museum exhibits, his explanations help us understand all that we see. Most museums are concentrated in our capital, Prague.
The books and newspaper are the another source of cultur. Most newspapers are daily. Some are national, some are local. Magazines are weekly or monthly. Some newspapres are tabloids. These are usually the popular press and they often have a larger circulation. The more serios newspaper are bigger in size.
I have not much time for cultur, but I like it. In our town, there is not many opportunities for cultural life. There is one building for cinema and theatre, small museum in the town hall and the libraly. I don´t go often to the cinema, I prefer to see it on computer, but wenn there a good film is sreening, I go. I like comedies and some psychological movies. I like czech movies, I think they are usually very good. I don´t like the war movies.
No very much young people like going to the theatre, but I do. It is allways great experience. I usually go to the theatre in our town or at time I go with my mother in Prague. I was already in the National Theatre. I was there on ballet The tame of the bad woman and it was really very nice. We also go to the theatre with our school.
I went sometime on musicals in Prague before. I have seen Dracula, Hamlet, Evita, Joan from Ark … The Dracula was for me the best musical. It was really good. It was playing, at time, when the musicals became popular. Nowdays there are many musicals, but I think they are not so good.
From childhood I like reading. I visit libraly and I read very often. I don´t read newspapers, I rather see the news. I prefer some magazins for girls or tabloids. The books that I read are novels, some romances or required reading. The required reading is some time good and the oppinion that it is always awful is not true.
Despite the fact that we nowdays have less and less free time, we schould always find a while for a good book, for going to the cinema, to attend theatre from time to time and to go and visti a museum or some interesting exhibition a few times a year.

Nature and environment

Posted by | Posted in Angličtina | Posted on 02-10-2008

There are many problems in the world. Science is trying to solve them and all of us should contribute to solution. o¬ne of the biggest problems is that of environment. The steep development of industry is a great danger for life o¬n the Earth. There are two pressing problems with the atmosphere of our planet caused by emitting polluting materials into the air. The first o¬ne is the impairment of the ozone layer. Ozone absorbs the ultraviolet rays (UV radiation) from the Sun, which is dangerous for all beings o¬n the Earth. Ozone is decomposed by freons above all. It is necessary to stop using this gas and replace it by another o¬ne. The second great problem is the green-house effect Which is caused by a lot of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the air. Gradual warming of the Earth-s atmosphere can bring melting ok the polar icecaps and the sea level going up.

Another problem connected with the environment is the problem of energy. We need a lot of energy to keep the development of industry. There have been invented three main types of power stations so far. Thermal power stations pollute the air, release smog. Water power stations destroy the landscape and in our country there are few suitable rivers for water power stations. Nuclear power stations are rather expensive but they do not pollute the air. Many people think that they are not safe but the biggest problem is nuclear waste We should use new sources of energy, for example solar energy and energy exploitation under the surface of our planet.

The development of industry requires raw materials, too. The deposits of raw materials o¬n the Earth will be exhausted and that is why we must replace some materials with plastics. But plastics bring another problem because they are indestructible and scientists have to find a technology enabling their utilization. Recyclation is’ o¬ne of the ways to economize the raw materials.

There are a lot of ways of being friendly ‘to the environment. We can use means of transport, which are less dangerous -for, the environment (bicycle, train, walk, unleaded petrol). We can sort our waste to enable its recyclation . We can save energy . We can choose washing-up liquids and washing powders that don’t harm the environment.

Many people are also worried about local environmental problems such as noise, drinking water and litter. The best thing to do about litter is not to drop it in the first place . (More men are prosecuted for dropping litter than women. Almost o¬ne-third of all litter dropped is smoking-related.)

There are many environmental movements working for protection of nature. For example Greenpeace, Children of the Earth, Rainbow,etc.

Rainforests
Before 1900 rainforests covered 14% of [lie world’s surface. Today they cover 7%. The reason for (his is simple. They have been cut down to provide a) land. b) paper, c) wood, d) medicines, e) minerals. f) fuel. But it’s not o¬nly trees which are disappearing. Every rainforest also contains millions of animals, insects and flowers. These are destroyed, too. If man continues to cut down rainforests, more than o¬ne million species of plants and animals will become extinct’)by the year 2030. Governments should protect’) certain areas and plant new forests.

Energy
At the moment, 94% of the world’s energy comes -from fossil) fuels. There’s enough coal for the next 300 years but o¬nly enough gas and oil for the next 50. What happens then? Well, o¬ne answer is nuclear energy. But after the Chernobyl disaster 7) in 1986, many people think nuclear power isn’t safe’). There ,ire four ‘Green’9)solutions. They all use natural energy already in the environment, a) wind energy (Britain’s first ‘wind farm’ opened in Scotland in I..988), b) solar energy, c) wave”)energy (from the sea) and d) geothermal)”@energy (from ‘hot’ rocks under the earth).

Acid Rain

One of Europe and North America’s most serious pollution problems is acid rain. What happens? First factories send gases and chemicals into the air. There they mix and are carried for hundreds miles by the wind. Finally they fall back to earth when it rains. This acid rain kills fish and trees. It slowly destroys buildings and bridges, too. Industrial countries should control their levels of pollution. This is already happening in some parts of Europe. Several countries there, have cut their acid rain pollution by 30%.

Wildlife
Animals are part of the environment too. Millions of them are killed or treated”) cruelly”) by mail every year. Animals are used for scientific research. Animal’s ire killed for sport or for their fur or skin. Animals are in danger because the environment is in danger. and they are kept cruel conditions o¬n the farms, - for example chickens, cows. Groups like ‘Greenpeace’ have already helped to stop furhunting. Like many other organizations, they believe in animal rights. Animals shouldn’t suffer.

Gastronomy

Posted by | Posted in Angličtina | Posted on 02-10-2008

Daily meals usually start with breakfast. An English breakfast differs greatly from ours. Traditional British breakfast consists of a glass of fruit juice, cornflakes with sugar and milk and buttered crisp piece of toast with marmalade or jam or honey. Quite a lot of British people eat müsli for their breakfast or some other ready-made cereals or porridge. Of course they drink tea in the morning or coffee.
Tea has been called the national beverage of the English and it is still their favourite drink. They usually put milk in their tea, but seldom put any sugar in it. Sundays are reserved for their big cooked breakfast (which is sometimes called “brunch” - breakfast and lunch together) consisting of e.g. hard or soft boiled, scrambled, poached or fried eggs, fried bacon, sausages, tomatoes, fried bread. Their breakfast is taken at eight or at nine o clock.
The second meal is lunch taken between 12 and 1 o’clock, which is a light meal. People may eat in the office or factory canteen some kind of meat or fish, potatoes and vegetables and fruit or take a sandwich to work, which is the most current. The origin of the world “sandwich” is interesting. An 18th century aristocrat, the Earl of Sandwich, loved playing cards. He used to play all day and night and hated having to stop for his meals. So he thought of a way of putting meat between two slices of bread. In this way he could eat and play at the same time.
The typical British break is 5 o’clock tea, which is called high tea. The tea is usually fairly strong and eaten together with some cakes or biscuits.
At about 6 o’clock most families have their evening meal or “dinner”. Dinner is the principal meal of the day. It may be cooked or cold, depending on the time of year. There is sometimes soup as the first course then some meat, vegetables and almost always potatoes, which is rather boring. The English are fond of cakes and pies. And there is often a sweet - some kind of pudding or a fruit pie.
Supper is a meal, which the English sometimes have when they come home from the cinema or the theatre late at night. It is always lighter meat. The traditional perception of British cuisine is of overcooked vegetables, tasteless meat and a lot of potatoes. Many families now prefer to eat out at restaurants or cafés or to buy take-away Chinese or Indian meals to eat at home. The selection of foreign food is larger now and there are lots of hamburger chains. They are a nation with a very “sweet tooth”.
Fast food is a typical feature of both British and American life styles. In a restaurant you can eat national dishes, but there are food stalls and places where you can either buy various types of food to eat as you walk along the streets or take it away and eat at home. The Americans call fast food restaurants “cheapies”. These places - McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s, Kentucky Fried Chicken (in America also Mrs. Winner’s) usually offer beverages (Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola, tea, coffee, milkshakes…), some solid food like roast chicken and chips, hamburgers, sandwiches, pizza, salads or deserts (apple, cherry pie). The oldest types of fast food are seafood stalls or shops - usually fish and chips. Many types of fish are sold (cod, hake, plaice). Another typical feature of British and American lifestyle is popcorn. You can buy it when walking the streets. Various types of popcorn are sold - either sweet with sugar and other flavours, or cooked with salt.
In our country daily meals usually start with breakfast, which consists of something to drink - tea (with milk or with lemon) or cocoa, warm or hot milk, black coffee - and something to eat, e. g. one or two slices of bread and butter and cheese or eggs, ham, salami, jam etc. Instead of bread we can eat rolls or buns or we can have something sweet - cakes, doughnuts or gingerbread. Quite a lot of people eat cereal for their breakfast - either cornflakes or porridge or muesli - they also sometimes add various ingredients like yoghurt, raisins, chocolate, stewed fruit, walnuts, hazelnuts etc. Breakfast usually takes place between 6 and 7 o’clock.
Around noon (but in our school sometimes at half past two p. m.) we have our lunch, which is warm and consists of some soup, a main dish, something to drink and salad or dessert. Most people go to a school, office or factory canteen but some prefer going to a restaurant or having a fast lunch in a buffet or a snack bar or buying something at street stalls.
Soups are either vegetable soups (potato, tomato, pea, bean, carrot, parsley, celery, mushrooms) or meat teas (beef tea, tripe, chicken, hen or goulash soup etc.). Some people cook fruit soups (e. g. strawberry soup).
The main dish can be either sweet - e.g. strawberry or plum dumplings, pancakes with jam and cream, baked yeast dumplings, doughnuts etc. Or we can have some meat or fish or poultry with some vegetables such as potatoes, chips, rice, Czech dumplings, pasta or bread. We distinguish the following types of meat: beef, pork, veal, mutton, lamb, game and we can prepare it in various ways - roast it, grill it, boil it, bake it or stew it - we can mince or smoke some kinds of meat. Poultry is things like chicken, hen, duck, turkey and goose. Lots of people in our country eat rabbits. The main fish cooked in our country is carp (it is a traditional Christmas meal - battered carp and potato salad) and trout.
While cooking we may add various spices so that the meal will have a unique flavour - e. g. garlic, sage, rosemary, thyme, marjoram, curry, pepper, ginger, red pepper, mace, cinnamon, clove, cumin, bay leaf, allspice, ketchup, Soya sauce, Worchester, sugar, vinegar, mustard, peanuts, onions, flour, semolina, etc.
After the main dish we may drink tea, lemonade, cider, juice, Coca-Cola, mineral water syrup and water, while the adults like beer and black coffee after their dinner.
An evening meal may be either warm or cold. Cold and quick supper may consist of some pâté on bread or rolls, kippers or some spread. We can cook a ready-made dish from a tin or have soup or potato pancakes.
Typical Czech meals include: Tripe soup, potato soup, “kulajda” soup (mushrooms and potatoes boiled in a little bit of sour cream soup), roasted goose and sauerkraut and Czech dumplings, Moravian sparrows (roasted fat pork off cuts) and dumplings, Spanish birds (rolled beef steaks filled with salami, pickle, egg and mustard), potato pancakes, fruit dumplings with cream, baked yeast dumplings, potato or “hairy” dumplings, fried cheese etc. Traditional Czech cuisine is however a bit unhealthy and people can get fat. Many families prefer to cook more vegetable meals, they become vegetarians or try some kind of foreign (Chinese) food.