Shopping

Posted by | Posted in Angličtina | Posted on 02-10-2008

Shopping is one of the most important part of our lifes in recent times. For the most of people it is an activity, which they are doing every day. The most important for the families is to buy the food. They can buy it in the stores, marketplaces, but in recent times was built a lot of malls, supermarkets, hypermarkets and other shopping centers, where you can buy everything what comes on your mind.
There is a lot of kinds of food shops. For example at bakery you can buy rolls, cookies and cakes, at butchery you can buy meet products. If you want to buy a fresh fruits and vegetables, the best thing to do is to go to the marketplace. Children like sweets, so you can buy it for them in a candy shops.
Nowdays it is especially a fashion shops which spreaded very quickly. It appeared many shops with the clothes from the fashion designers in comparsion with a normal original mark clothes like Nike, Adidas, Reebok etc. For example italian fashion – designers like Versace, Jannis etc. The clothes is starting to be very expensive. For example trademarks like Benetton or Boss – there you can buy common clothes three times more expensive than in other shops.
In the most of the malls and shopping centers you can buy everything from food over hardware to fashion. In these big stores you can pay by cash or by plastic money. It exists two kind of them: credit card (you have a credit limit at the bank or some other financial institution, you have to pay the money back to the bank later). There are a various types of the credit cards. It is divided by the companies, which are producing them – Access, MasterCard, Visa etc. The second kind is a debit card (you aren´t limitied that strictly as if you have a credit card, you can spare the money which you have at the bank plus some minus values from your account – but you have to pay the money back in some time period).

You can pay on the mall desk directly by the plastic money or you can withdraw the cash from the ATMs. But when you are using the plastic money, you have to pay the fees and taxes to the bank, where you have an account. So the banks is offering a supporting the plastic money very much.

Different kinds of shops:
• stalls - standing in the streets and squares or at the tube-stations (many of their keepers are Vietnamese)
- you can buy watches, jeans or shoes cheaper than anywhere else, but this goods often have terrible quality – lose colours, shape, …,
• self-service shops or supermarkets – bigger, you can buy also goods from chemist or ironmonger here
• hypermarkets – very large, sell all possible kinds of food and kitchen and house needs
• department stores – usually huge buildings equipped with speedy lifts and escalators, where you can buy almost everything from food to furniture
• big markets, which are sponsored from abroad, could be dangerous for small private shops, because they can push off them
• TV shopping – adverts on TV, you can phone and they will post you the goods
• Internet shopping – you search an Internet page of some shop and you can find the prizes and you can order some goods or duties, you can send money from your bank account for programs’ registration
• Interactive shops – in isn’t ordinary yet, they just try it in some countries, you can order something through your TV set – very comfortable

At a bakery you can buy bread, rolls, cookies, and cakes.
At a butcher shop you can buy meat and sausages.
At a clothing store you can buy clothes for men, women, or children.
At an electronics store you can buy TV sets and other electrical appliances.
At a florists you can buy flowers and plants.
At a garden shop you can buy grass seed, fertilizer, and garden supplies.
At a greengrocers you can buy vegetables and fruit.
At a hardware store you can buy tools, nails, and other building supplies.
At a shoe store you can buy shoes and shoe polish.
At a stationary store you can buy paper, stationery, and envelopes.
At a sweet shop you can buy cakes, pastries, candy, and ice cream.
At toy store you can buy dolls, games, balls, and other toys.

Shopping in our country x GB
Czech Republic
• in the Czech Republic there are more possibilities for private shops and duties after revolution in 1989
• shops aren’t only Czech, but also foreigner companies discovered our market for their business, we can meet with many foreigner shops (Makro, Bauhaus, Kauflland, Salamander…)
• our businessmen have to count with a big competition from abroad. It could be good for customers, because the Shopkeepers must keep the prices low.
• we can buy cloth in the boutiques, but there are all kinds of cloth very expensive, because those are originals
Great Britain
Big supermarkets; out of the city; people do big shopping; they pay with credit cards not in cash
Tesco – supermarkets for not very rich people, the goods isn’t arranged very well, lower prices
Harold’s – for very rich people, you don’t see prizes, staff is very polite, dressed in special costumes, it has got long tradition, you have to be well dressed to get in
Marks & Spencer – clothes shop, not very expensive for English
Body shop – small shops, very expensive, cosmetics, natural products, not tasted on animals, nothing artificial
Boots – chemist’s, cosmetic, detergents, in the USA also some refreshment

Sport and games

Posted by | Posted in Angličtina | Posted on 02-10-2008

Sports and games are activities that are well known for everybody of us. People started to do sports and play games many years ago, but the biggest boom was in this century. With coming of new technologies people got new possibilities and new ideas how to spend their spare time for pleasure, but only for it. People do the sports because they want to keep fit, build their muscles and make their body better for look. It is also very good (the best) kind of relaxation. It helps to keep our mental health in order. The majority of people do the sports as a hobby but some people do the sport as a job.

Kinds of sports
- Season sports: summer, winter, seasonal…
- Outdoors: baseball, golf, gliding, skiing…
- Indoors: table-tennis, gymnastic, chess
- Social: all teams games (football, volleyball)
- Single: chess, golf, athletics…
- Water, ball games…

Typical sports for
Great Britain
- Many sports have their origins in Britain that is why Britain is sometimes called the cradle of sports
- Cricket – real English game, it has never spread in foreign countries, it is intensively played only in the UK, Australia and some other Commonwealth countries; it is played on a cricket field of approximately size of two pitches, two teams of 11 members, they use cricket-bat and a small leather-ball.
- Golf – has its origins in Scotland
- Football – the most popular game in Britain;
- Tennis, Squash
- They don’t play volleyball at all

The USA
- Baseball, Rugby, Basketball, Motor racing, Ice-hockey (Canada)…

The Czech Republic
- Football, Ice-hockey, Tennis, Volleyball…

Rules and equipment
When you want to do some sport you firstly need to know the rules. If don’t know it you may be sent off the play or you don’t achieve the best results (score) you could. You nearly always need some equipment for doing it. For instance when you play golf you has to have lot of equipment – different kinds of sticks, balls, special trolley.

Important sport events
The Olympic Games
- are the most famous sport event in the world
- people represent their own country, more than 30 sport events
- they are held every four years, they have their summer and winter parts which change once every two years
- the first Olympic Games took place in Olympia, Greece in the year 776 B.C., there exist many legends – the story of the marathon (in 490 a Greek runner ran about 42 km. from Marathon to Athens; he was bringing news of the Battle of Athens; but he ran too tar, too fast; he died from exhaustion)
- symbol of the Games is The Olympic Flag – there are five connected circles, each symbolised one continent (blue – Europe, black – Africa, red – America, yellow – Asia, green – Australia); and The Olympic Fire – it is traditionally lighted in Greek Olympia and moved to the city in which the Games are taking place, it burns during the OG
Other Events
Wimbledon – the most famous tennis tournament in the world, Czech republic belong to the first class, it takes place in GB
World Championships in F1, hockey, football, World Cups…

Other
Sport as a hobby
- sport could be very funny and what is very important, nearly everybody can do some sport activity
- sport keeps us healthy not only physical, but psychical, too
- we can do sport with our friends, or meet a lot of new interesting people
- sport teaches us, how to improve our condition and some kinds of sports could us teach how to be more responsible and fair
- but you must be careful and don’t overestimate your power
Sport as a profession
- it is very hard work, you have to be very good at it if you want to be famous
- you can earn a lot of money and meet famous people
- but it could be very dangerous for your body. Some kinds of sports – athletics, are very dangerous for your muscles – you can stretch your muscles, and your joins very suffer
- there is a big danger of anabolic steroids (synthetic hormone) – if you take it, it destroys your body very much
- you have to be very careful of every kinds of injuries, because it could be the end of you carrier
- if you are top sportsman, you have to keep very strictly rules and your private life is under the control, too
- you must know the rules and respect them
- must have a good equipment and trainer

Holidays and feasts

Posted by | Posted in Angličtina | Posted on 02-10-2008

During the whole year various holidays and feast days are celebrated in Britian, U.S.A. and our country- Czech republic. Some holidays are celebrated in all these countries; some are national holidays. One of the biggest holidays of the year is Christmas. It is day, when Christ was born.

Christmas
In Britian
Preparations for Christmas start long before in late October or early November. That is when British housewives make their Christmas cakes. These cakes taste much better if made a month or two before Christmas. Some weeks before Christmas the streets and shops are decorated. A lot of British families have Christmas trees made of plastic. There are no candles on them but electric lights. Socks are hung up. Children believe Father Christmas will fill them. He comes on his sledge-pulled by reindeer-very early on the morning of Christmas Day. He enters the house through the chimney and puts the children’s presents into their stockings. They get their presents on Christmas Day and not on Christmas Eve. The dinner on Christmas Day is the „most important“ meal of the year. The British usually have roast turkey and roast potatoes followed by Christmas pudding (also called plum pudding). Christmas pudding is a special rich pudding made with lots of dried fruit, eggs, suet and flour. It is made well ahead before Christmas, boiled for four hours and then heated again on Christmas Day. It will keep for a long time. There is also an old custom of stirring into the pudding a coin, a thimble and a ring to bring wealth, work and a wedding to those who find it. There are plenty of carols on the radio and TV.
December 26 is called Boxing Day from the custom in earlier times of giving postmen, milkmen, newspaper boys and the like small sums of money, which they collected in their Christmas boxes.
In our country
Preparations for Christmas begin four weeks before 24 December. This time is called Advent. The housewives bake sweets. Kind of sweets, gingerbread taste much better when made a month before Christmas. Gingerbread is decorated with white icing. Many people make Advent’s wreath with four candles. One of candles is lighted on in every advent’s Sunday. On Christmas Sunday all candles are lighted. During the preparation for Christmas there is a nice, friendly atmosphere. A lot of people buy Christmas tree, but many people have tree made of plastic. The most important day of Christmas is Christmas Eve. People eat only Christmas cake with tee or coffee for breakfast. They haven’t to eat any meat all day, because according to customer, in the evening they will see the Golden pig. Somebody, mostly mother, prepares the dinner and the tree is decorated with chocolate, sweets, flasks and no candles, but electric lights. During waiting for evening people watch TV, because there are many fairy tales (Cinderella, The very sad princess or The princess with gold star on forehead). The children believe that Christ Child brings the presents and he puts them under the tree. Around six o’clock in the evening a lot of families have Christmas dinner. It is the most important meal of the year. The usually have fried carp with potatoes salad after the lentil or fish soop. The carp taste much better, when it swim a few days in bath before Christmas, because then it don’t smell of pound. Some people give some scales from carp in the purse and they believe according to the custom that they will have much money in New Year. After the big meal the family go to the room, where the tree stand. There are some presents. Children unpack them and they always are happy.
25 Th December people often go visiting their relations and friends. They get presents friend and friends’ get presents them.
One week after Christmas people celebrate the New Year’s Eve. People stay up till midnight to see how the old year out and drink a toast to the New Year.
In Britian two months than people celebrated St. Valentine’s Day. It is on 14thFebruary. It is lover’s day. On this day young people send Valentine cards to a person of the opposite sex. The cards have funny, loving or serious contents. This day is celebrated in U.S. and now in our country.
All Fool’s Day-On 1st April is day of all foot. It is named after the custom of playing practical jokes and tricks on people and then you can shout “April fool”.
The Easter is celebrated in all countries, too.

Easter
The date of Easter is different every year. It’s celebrated after the first full moon in spring. It is a Christian festival, marking the crucifixion and resurgence of Christ. Many people go to church. For some people it is only a spring holiday.
In U.S.A.
Easter Sunday in U.S. is a special day for many people. Children enjoy the holiday very much. They hunt for coloured eggs, eat chocolate bunnies and wear their best clothes. Legend says that Easter rabbits bring Easter eggs: Once old woman dyed some eggs during a famine and hid them in a nest as a present for her children. Just when her children found the nest a rabbit leaped away. The rabbit brought the eggs, thought the children. On Sunday morning children start hunting for painted eggs all over the house and garden. Some children have their baskets full of the eggs.
In England
In England Good Friday and Easter Monday are bank holidays (official holidays). On Good Friday hot cross buns are eaten for breakfast. Children look forward to Easter Sunday called Easter Day, which is day for chocolate and painted eggs, the symbol of new life. Easter Monday has no particular customs and in spent in a variety of ways, but either at home or in a countryside the rule is enjoys you.
In our country
In our country the most important day for children especially for boys is Easter Monday. For them Easter Monday is full of fun. There are many groups of boys in the streets from early morning till noon. They visit the girls. Boys have plaits willow cane and they carry small baskets. When they come into a girl’s house they say a rhyme and whip the girl on her legs and bottom. The girl gives them chocolate, Easter eggs or some cake or some money.

St George’s Day is on April 23rd.Georg is the patron saint of England.
On May Day there are political parties.

Halloween
October 31. Among the old Celts it was the last day of the year and the beginning of winter when witches and ghosts were supposed to celebrate their rites. When the pagans were Christianised, the holiday was converted to the Eve of All Saints Day when the Christian Church honours the memory of the dead. In Britian it is celebrated only in the North of England and in Scotland, but it is generally celebrated in the USA and Canada. Children celebrate it by dressing up in Halloween costumes with masks over their faces. Carrying baskets or bags they go to their friends and neighbours houses and they knock at the door or ring the bell. When people come to the door, children say “Trick or treat” which means “Give us a treat or we will play a trick on you”. The people treat the children with sweets, fruit or money. The most common trick is soaping the windows of houses and cars (that is drawing pictures on the windows with soap). A favourite custom is to make a jack-o-lantern from a pumpkin, which is scraped, out and in which eyes, a nose and a mouth are cut and then a candle is lit inside. People sometimes give parties on Halloween. The guests wear fancy costumes and masks and the rooms are decorated with paper moons, witches and ghosts.
In USA there are different holidays. One of them is Independence Day; July 4.Each city has its own ceremony and parades, band concerts and firework displays in the evening. This day commemorates the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, thus establishing USA.

Thanksgiving day
Thanksgiving day is celebrated in the U.S. on 4thThursday in November. It remembers the first settlers who came to America in 1620. In 1620 the ship named Mayflower brought one hundred and two English men, women and children to America. They were puritans, members of a religions sect. They called themselves the Pilgrim Fathers. The winter was cold and half of them died. In spring they planted corn and other plants with helps and advice from the Indians. In autumn they celebrated good harvest and had a feast with much food. They called this day their day of Thanksgiving. It is family holiday the whole family gathers together and enjoys a traditional dinner – roast turkey, bread stuffing, mashed potatoes, cranberry sauce and pumpkin pie.
The turkey is the glorious centrepiece of the Thanksgiving Day. The turkey should be golden brown on the outside and the inside should be moist and tender. The gravy is thickened juice from turkey that we get during baking. The mashed potatoes can be cream or smooth. For best results, the cranberry sauce should be made about three days in advance. You need water, sugar, cloves, allspice and cinnamon sticks. Then you add cranberries. The pumpkin pie needs a good crust made from dough. Dinnertime is between 3 to 5 PM. By that time there is a great smell in whole house. The dinner table has special decorations – napkins with Thanksgiving ornaments, small decorative pumpkins, decorative turkey made out of paper and flowers. Favourite colours are orange and brown. The family speak about the thinks for which they are thankful. People give thanks for their being well, for happiness of their families. Many families begin Thanksgiving dinner with a prayer.

St. Patrick’s Day
Though St, Patrick’s Day on March 17, is not an official holiday in the U.S., it is celebrated all over the country. Saint Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland, and Irish immigrants brought this holiday to America. The facts of his life are largely obscured by legend. It is known that he was born about the year 385. He became a monk in France. According to legend he had a vision that called him to return to Ireland to Christianise it. By showing the Irish a shamrock he explained the doctrine of the Trinity. Shamrock is a plant with leaves composed of three leaflets. It is now used as the emblem of Ireland. An artificial or real shamrock leaf is usually worn on St Patrick’s Day. It is the anniversary of his death though it is not certain in what year he died. People also celebrate this day by wearing something green and getting together to party and sing Irish songs. They are usually a very happy crowd. In many pubs they serve green beer and in most restaurants they offer an Irish menu on that day. People wish each other “A happy St. Patrick’s day” and the Irish wear buttons that read “Kiss me I’m Irish”. In most big cities colourful parades with marching bands mark the holiday to the delight of many onlookers and passers-by. It is estimated that there are about 17 million Irish living in the United States.

Travelling

Posted by | Posted in Angličtina | Posted on 02-10-2008

In the past travelling from one place to another wasn´t so easy. People usually used to travel on foot, on a horseback, in carriages, later in trains. Nowadays, people often must travel every day.

There are many people, who must travel every day because of their job or because of their school. We call them commuters. They aren´t only students, who usually commute, they are also businessmen or people from small villages. Businessmen must often travel because of concluding of some contracts. Each summer or winter many people travel to foreign countries to their holidays. In summer the seashores are very attractive, and in winter the mountains attract many tourists. They want to have a rest, maybe also fun, make some sport, etc. Some people also want to get to know other people or learn about foreign cultures. They usually visit interesting places like Nepal, Tibet or South America.

In our country travelling is very popular, I think. After year 1989 we can travel everywhere, where we want to. It ´s great. There are many commuters. I think that Czechs like very much so-called package holiday. It is maybe more expensive then travelling on own hook, but I think that it is also more comfortable. Package holiday includes accommodation, transport to the place of holiday and back, food, insurance and service of a courier. Sometimes it can include some trips or another entertainment. It is usually arranged by travel agency. I think that it has got many advantages mainly for families with the small children or for retired people. But there are also very popular travelling through our. Many people have got their cottage, where they go every weekends. The business travelling grows and also many students must go to the big cities like Prague, Ostrava or Brno because the universities are only there.

The Czech Republic is today also very attractive place for holiday. It is mainly Prague, which attracts most of the tourists. There are many beautiful sights of interest and never-to-be-forgotten atmosphere in Prague. I mean mainly Lesser Town and Old Town. Also Czech mountains like Krkonoše or Šumava are visited by many tourists, mainly from Germany, Pollen or Austria. Other reasons can be different culture actions, which are taking place there. For example film festival Karlovy Vary or music festivals like Prague Spring, Rock for People or Trutnov Open Air. A big advantage, why people can visit our country, are the prices. Everything is here quite cheaper.

I have already said, that in the past people usually travel on a horseback. It was maybe cheaper and more adventurous, but I can imagine more comfortable mean of transport. Today we have got modern technologies. There is public transport, which his very important, in the big cities. It is quicker, because there is often traffic-jam. The kinds of public transport are the underground, the trams, trolley buses and buses. Bus transports people for quite short distances, mainly for commuting. Sometimes people travel by bus to foreign countries, so they travel by coach. The taxis are maybe more comfortable, but at the same time also more expensive. For example for commuting we can use trains. Nowadays, people can also travel by planes. It is fast, usually international transportation. After taking off people cannot smoke and use mobile phones. But it is very comfortable and luxury. During long journey people get some food, which is included in flying ticket. There are also cargo planes. People can choose first or second class according to price. People can, of course, travel by ship, it is typical for example for British channel. Passengers are transported by ferry. But now they can travel in tunnel. And bikes or motorbikes are very popular mainly among young people. The most typical mean of transport is still a car, I think that almost everyone has got his own car.

If people travel to the another places, they must somewhere stay. Businessmen or people on their holiday usually stay in hotels. That is comfortable. But they can stay also in motels or bungalow. People choose often the self-catering-villas for their holiday. It is place, usually a house or a flat, where they cook alone. Young people choose usually hostels. Students usually stay in the halls of residence during their studying. It is one kind of hostel. The second kind is B&B, it means bed and breakfast. It is very cheap. But some people love always sleeping in tent. I think camping is still romantic. In the last time young people also sleep open air, it is typical for some summer music festivals.

If people travel from one state to another, that they need a valid passports. Custom officers are quite hypersensitive to it. Sometimes people must have got also visa, we can get it at embassy. Czechs need visa for example for entry to USA, New Zealand or Ukraine. If people travel to the exotic countries, it is important to have vaccinations for example against malaria etc. And, of course, we should have got some money. WE must exchange money into hard currency at exchange office or in bank. IF we travel for longer time, we usually have got few pieces of luggage with clothes, food and so on. Businessmen usually hold suitcase, ladies handbags and young people rucksacks or bags. Everyone should keep the weight limits.

English speaking countries

Posted by | Posted in Angličtina | Posted on 02-10-2008

English is the world language, the language of international communication in many areas of life: trade, air and sea transport, tourism, sport and entertainment. More and more people also need English for studying at universities and colleges. New ideas in science, technology and medicine happen so quickly that is impossible and very expensive to translate everything into different languages. So most things are published in English, and if you want to study some subject, f.e. Biology or business, you need to know professional words and phrases.
It is spoken by around 350 million people. It is used as a first language in countries such as Australia, Canada, GB, Ireland, New Zealand, the USA and many of the countries in the Caribbean. In other countries it is used as a second language, it is a way in which people who have different languages communicate with each other. This is especially true in many parts of Africa and India. In these countries and former British colonies English is an official language.
The Commonwealth consists of most of the countries that were once parts of the British Empire. In these countries is English first or second language.
There are fifty members. Some are very large countries like Canada, India and Australia. Some are just small islands like Barbados and Tonga. The Head of the Commonwealth is the Queen. There is also a Secretary-General, who is chosen from any one of the fifty countries.
However, English in all these countries is not the same. Australian, American or Irish English has another pronunciation or stresses, so sometimes you cannot understand, although you can speak English.
USA has no official national language, but English is used like a natural language by all Americans, because is very simple. The American variety is popular between no-native speakers, too.
American English is simpler in spelling (harbor-harbour) and grammar (Do you have? – Have you?).